Materno-foetal complications have an increased prevalence in pregnancies complicated by diabetes. Ethnicity and cultural background may further affect these outcomes. In this study, we compared labour and foetal outcomes in Afro-Caribbean and Caucasian women with diabetes in pregnancy, using the Birmingham computerised database of diabetes in pregnancy. A retrospective analysis, covering the period 1990-2002, was employed. Foetal outcomes included early foetal loss, neonatal and perinatal mortality, congenital malformations and infant size. at delivery. Labour outcomes assessed were mode and time of delivery. Overall, Afro-Caribbean women achieve similar results to Caucasian women. No significant differences were seen in foetal outcomes between the two cohorts or between diabetic subtypes. Afro-Caribbean women were more likely to have a vaginal delivery, but present later for their first antenatal visit compared with Caucasian women. Variations in culture or access to health care may account for these differences. An awareness of the specific needs of ethnic minorities is essential to ensure that this encouraging trend continues.