Many interesting shapes appearing in the biological world are formed by the onset of mechanical instability. In this work we consider how the build-up of residual stress can cause a solid to buckle. In all past studies a fictitious (virtual) stress-free state was required to calculate the residual stress. In contrast, we use a model which is simple and allows the prescription of any residual stress field.We specialize the analysis to an elastic tube subject to a two-dimensional residual stress, and find that incremental wrinkles can appear on its inner or its outer face, depending on the location of the highest value of the residual hoop stress. We further validate the predictions of the incremental theory with finite element simulations, which allow us to go beyond this threshold and predict the shape, number and amplitude of the resulting creases. (C) 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.