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Hynes, MJ,Forde, S,Jonson, B
Science Of The Total Environment
Element migration from glass compositions containing no added lead
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Six crystal glass compositions without added lead were used to prepare standard beakers having a volume of ca. 240 ml. The experimentally determined concentrations of the elements in the glass beakers were in satisfactory agreement with the theoretically predicted values. The degree of leaching of selected elements from these beakers was determined using 4% acetic acid as described in the ISO 7086-1:2000 standard test. In addition, to the degree of leaching by 4% acetic acid, migration into cola, red wine, 40% ethanol and 0.3% citric acid was also determined. Elements tested included antimony, barium, bismuth and zinc as these were considered to be of most interest. The results show that it is possible to produce durable glass containing no added lead. The overall quality of the glasses was good and the concentrations of the various elements migrating (leaching) into the various test solutions used was very small and it is clear that they would not present a hazard to consumers in the event that they were to use glasses of any of these compositions for consumption of either alcoholic or non-alcoholic beverages. The original ISO7086-1:2000 test using a 4% acetic acid leaching solution was developed to test for lead migration from crystal containing added lead and ceramic ware containing lead glazes or colouring. This work also shows that it is an excellent leaching agent for assessing the safety of crystal containing no added lead as it gave the highest degree of migration for all the glass compositions and all the elements tested. In the case of glasses containing ZnO, it was shown that the degree of zinc migration was linearly related to the mole-% of ZnO in the glass. With respect to the durability of glasses, it was shown that the degree of attack increases when the degree of silica depolymerisation increases. (C) 2003 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
DOI 10.1016/S0048-9697(03)00409-1
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