Responsibility to Protect was first articulated in the International Commission on Intervention and State Sovereignty in 2001. What it entails, and when it might be invoked, has since been subject to debate in political, legal and academic spheres. This article sets out to outline the issues and challenges to implementing the Responsibility to Protect (R2P) principle focusing on the context of violence against women. The paper will examine the gendered impact of interventions, taking into consideration the various forms that intervention may take. In doing so, connections will be drawn between the R2P and the Women, Peace and Security agenda which has developed in parallel. The Women, Peace and Security resolutions have revolved primarily around protection against gender-based violence in conflict contexts and women’s participation in decision making and conflict resolution.