Using light microscopy, we examined Hunter-Schreger Band (HSB) patterns on the axial and occlusal/incisal surfaces of 160 human teeth, sectioned in both the buccolingual and mesiodistal planes. We found regional variations in HSB packing densities (number of HSBs per mm of amelodentinal junction length) and patterns throughout the crown of each class of tooth (maxillary and mandibular: incisor, canine, premolar, and molar) examined. HSB packing densities were greatest in areas where functional and occlusal loads are greatest, such as the occlusal surfaces of posterior teeth and the incisal regions of incisors and canines. From this it is possible to infer that the behaviour of ameloblasts forming enamel prisms during amelogenesis is guided by genetic/evolutionary controls that act to increase the fracture and wear resistance of human tooth enamel. It is suggested that HSB packing densities and patterns are important in modern clinical dental treatments, such as the bonding of adhesive restorations to enamel, and in the development of conditions, such as abfraction and cracked tooth syndrome.