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Gunning, PS,Saikrishnan, N,Yoganathan, AP,McNamara, LM
Journal Of The Royal Society Interface
Total ellipse of the heart valve: the impact of eccentric stent distortion on the regional dynamic deformation of pericardial tissue leaflets of a transcatheter aortic valve replacement
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transcatheter aortic valve replacement distortion eccentric stent self-expanding leaflets COMPUTED-TOMOGRAPHY GEOMETRY ANNULUS DEPLOYMENT BIOPROSTHESES BIOMATERIALS IMPLANTATION PERFORMANCE ROOT
Transcatheter aortic valve replacements (TAVRs) are a percutaneous alternative to surgical aortic valve replacements and are used to treat patients with aortic valve stenosis. This minimally invasive procedure relies on expansion of the TAVR stent to radially displace calcified aortic valve leaflets against the aortic root wall. However, these calcium deposits can impede the expansion of the device causing distortion of the valve stent and pericardial tissue leaflets. The objective of this study was to elucidate the impact of eccentric TAVR stent distortion on the dynamic deformation of the tissue leaflets of the prosthesis in vitro. Dual-camera stereophotogrammetry was used to measure the regional variation in strain in a leaflet of a TAVR deployed in nominal circular and eccentric (eccentricity index = 28%) orifices, representative of deployed TAVRs in vivo. It was observed that (i) eccentric stent distortion caused incorrect coaptation of the leaflets at peak diastole resulting in a 'peel-back' leaflet geometry that was not present in the circular valve and (ii) adverse bending of the leaflet, arising in the eccentric valve at peak diastole, caused significantly higher commissure strains compared with the circular valve in both normotensive and hypertensive pressure conditions (normotension: eccentric = 13.76 +/- 2.04% versus circular = 11.77 +/- 1.61%, p = 0.0014, hypertension: eccentric = 15.07 +/- 1.13% versus circular = 13.56 +/- 0.87%, p = 0.0042). This study reveals that eccentric distortion of a TAVR stent can have a considerable impact on dynamic leaflet deformation, inducing deleterious bending of the leaflet and increasing commissures strains, which might expedite leaflet structural failure compared to leaflets in a circular deployed valve.
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