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Smyth, PPA,Burns, R,Huang, RJ,Hoffman, T,Mullan, K,Graham, U,Seitz, K,Platt, U,O'Dowd, C
2011
August
Environmental Geochemistry And Health
Does iodine gas released from seaweed contribute to dietary iodine intake?
Published
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Atmospheric gaseous iodine Thyroid Urinary iodine Seaweed Iodine MOLECULAR-IODINE PARTICLE FORMATION URINARY IODINE IN-SITU COASTAL QUANTIFICATION ENVIRONMENT MACROALGAE DEFICIENCY EMISSIONS
33
389
397
Thyroid hormone levels sufficient for brain development and normal metabolism require a minimal supply of iodine, mainly dietary. Living near the sea may confer advantages for iodine intake. Iodine (I-2) gas released from seaweeds may, through respiration, supply a significant fraction of daily iodine requirements. Gaseous iodine released over seaweed beds was measured by a new gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS)-based method and iodine intake assessed by measuring urinary iodine (UI) excretion. Urine samples were obtained from female schoolchildren living in coastal seaweed rich and low seaweed abundance and inland areas of Ireland. Median I-2 ranged 154-905 pg/L (daytime downwind), with higher values (similar to 1,287 pg/L) on still nights, 1,145-3,132 pg/L (over seaweed). A rough estimate of daily gaseous iodine intake in coastal areas, based upon an arbitrary respiration of 10,000L, ranged from 1 to 20 mu g/day. Despite this relatively low potential I-2 intake, UI in populations living near a seaweed hotspot were much higher than in lower abundance seaweed coastal or inland areas (158, 71 and 58 mu g/L, respectively). Higher values > 150 mu g/L were observed in 45.6% of (seaweed rich), 3.6% (lower seaweed), 2.3% (inland)) supporting the hypothesis that iodine intake in coastal regions may be dependent on seaweed abundance rather than proximity to the sea. The findings do not exclude the possibility of a significant role for iodine inhalation in influencing iodine status. Despite lacking iodized salt, coastal communities in seaweed-rich areas can maintain an adequate iodine supply. This observation brings new meaning to the expression "Sea air is good for you!".
DOI 10.1007/s10653-011-9384-4
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