The differential abundance of transcripts from alternative alleles of a gene, for example in a hybrid plant or an outbred natural population, can provide information about the nature of interindividual or interstrain variation in gene expression. Allele-specific expression (ASE) can result from epigenetic phenomena, such as imprinting (when the overexpressed allele is inherited consistently from one parent) or allele-specific chromatin modifications. Alternatively, DNA sequence variants in the promoter or within the transcribed region of a gene can affect the rate of transcription or the rate of decay of the transcript, respectively. The existence of this allelic variation and the insights it provides into the nature of the gene regulation are of significant interest. With the recent widespread availability of sequencing based transcriptomics, the power to detect ASE has increased; however, inference of ASE from transcriptome sequencing data is subject to several caveats and potential biases and the results need to be interpreted with care.