Graphite electrodes modified with a redox polymer, [Os(4,4'-dimethoxy-2,2'-bipyridine)(2)(polyvinyl imidazole)(10)Cl]Cl (E degrees' = -0.02 V vs Ag/AgCl), crosslinked with glucose oxidising enzymes and various amounts of multi-walled carbon nanotubes are investigated for current generation in the presence of glucose in physiological buffer solutions. Enzyme electrodes based on glucose oxidase and FAD-dependent glucose dehydrogenase are compared in the presence and absence of oxygen. The highest glucose oxidation currents are produced from enzyme electrodes containing 68% w/w multi-walled carbon nanotubes in the deposition matrix. The FAD-dependent glucose dehydrogenase and glucose oxidase enzyme electrodes provide similar current density of similar to 0.8 mA cm(-2) in de-oxygenated 50 mM phosphate-buffered saline at 37 degrees C containing 5 mM glucose concentration. Current densities under the same conditions, but in the presence of oxygen are 0.50 mA cm(-2) and 0.27 mA cm(-2), for glucose dehydrogenase and glucose oxidase enzyme electrodes, respectively, with decreased currents a result of oxygen reduction by the redox polymer in both cases, and oxygen acting as a co-substrate for the glucose oxidase-based electrodes. Application of the anodes in membrane-less enzymatic fuel cells is demonstrated by connection to cathodes prepared by co-immobilisation of [Os(2,2'-bipyridine)(2)(polyvinyl imidazole)(10)Cl]Cl redox polymer, Myrothecium verrucaria bilirubin oxidase and multi-walled carbon nanotubes on graphite electrodes. Power densities of up to 270 mW cm(-2) are achieved, showing promise for in vivo or ex vivo power generation under these conditions. (C) 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.