This paper explores the application of video-based methods for the analysis of com- petitive swimming performance. A systematic search of the existing literature was conducted using the following keywords: swim*, performance, analysis, quantitative, qualitative, cam- era, video on studies published in the last ve years, in the electronic databases ISI Web of Knowledge, PubMed, Science Direct, Scopus and SPORT discus. Of the 384 number of records initially identi ed, 30 articles were fully reviewed and their outcome measures were analysed and categorised according to (i) the processes involved, (ii) the application of video for techni- cal analysis of swimming performance and (iii) emerging advances in video technology. Re- sults showed that video is one of the most common methods used to gather data for analysing performance in swimming. The process of using video in aquatic settings is complex, with little consensus amongst coaches regarding a best-practice approach, potentially hindering usage and effectiveness. Different methodologies were assessed and recommendations for coaches, sport scientists and clinicians are provided. Video is an extremely versatile tool. In addition to providing a visual record, it can be used for qualitative and quantitative analysis and is used in both training and competition settings. Cameras can be positioned to gather images both above and below the water. Ongoing advances in automation of video processing techniques and the integration of video with other analysis tools suggest that video analysis will continue to remain central to the preparation of elite swimmers.